Saturday, May 23, 2020
Thomas Paine Thomas Paine was a Founding Father and strode towards the thirteen colonies independence. Thomas Paine had an interesting life and career from failing in his apprenticeship with his father and at jobs while oversea to writing a variety of works like Common Sense, and the Age of Reason. Thomas Paine was an incredible writer who wrote with passion even though he was criticized greatly. Thomas Paine was an important person in the American Revolutionary War. Thomas Paine was born in Thetford, England on January 29, 1737 from a Quaker and Anglican descent. Thomas PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s father expected a lot from his son and had great plans for him. Thomas Paine at the age of twelve failed out of Thetford Grammar School. Thomas Paine started apprenticing his father who at the time was a stay maker but ended up failing in that as well. Thomas Paine at the age of nineteen decided to work as a tax officer and never did too well at that and was fired from the job twice his time in Englan d. At the age of twenty-two Thomas PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s wife Mary Lambert died while she went into child labor and their child died as well. Thomas Paine published The Case of the Officers of Excise in 1772. The main purpose of him writing this was to help in the cause of raising the pay for tax officers. Around spring in 1774 after being fired from being a tax officer again Thomas Paine just so luckily met Benjamin Franklin who was an Ambassador for the thirteen colonies and Benjamin Franklin was able to helpShow MoreRelatedCitizen Tom Paine And Freedom Road Essay1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe novels Citizen Tom Paine (1943) and Freedom Road (1944). Citizen Tom Paine by Howard Fast depicts the conditions during The American Revolutionary War and its after math (1765-83). Freedom Road depicts the conditions of the former African slaves after The Civil War (1861-65) Thomas Paine is a political philosopher and thinker who has strived for the liberation of the Americans and African slaves since the time of American Revolutionary War. He is named as Tom Paine and is the protagonist ofRead MoreThe Revolutionary War787 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRunning head: Paine Thomas PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s Role in the Revolutionary War Dallin Hodgkin Mountain View High School Paine What sparks a revolution? What motivates the average man to rise up against everything heÃ¢â¬â¢s ever known? There have been many revolutions that have taken place in the past and each one has had different elements that powered them. The revolutionary war is an example of one such revolution. But what gave it power? There are two main ideas that start revolutionsRead MoreThe Political Factions, By Thomas Paine And James Chalmers1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfactions, Thomas Paine and James Chalmers are major literary figures in describing loyalist and anti-loyalist sentiments in pre-revolutionary America. While Thomas Paine argued for AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence, James Chalmers counters the idea by proposing some of the possible negative consequences as well as down-playing the perceived necessity of declaring independence. The major points of contention in both of their arguments deal heavily with the outcome of the French and Indian War (Seven YearsÃ¢â¬â¢ War) inclu dingRead MoreThomas Paine, an American Philosopher1267 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAn American born philosopher, Thomas Paine, was a strong adherent for independence and was agnostic in the government. Born on January 29, 1737, Paine lived what we would now call a tough life (http://www.britannica.com). At a young age, Paine had to withdraw from school to help his father with work. He attempted many jobs such as a hunting smuggler and a collector of tobacco and liquor taxes (http://www.britannica.com). Paine failed at those other jobs he tried and in 1774, moved to PhiladelphiaRead MoreSimilarities Between The Declaration Of Independence And The Declaration Of Independence948 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFew documents through American history have withstood the test of time and have become statement pieces for our society. In this group, the Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson and Common Sense by Thomas Paine both hold high positions. Thomas Paine wrote Ã¢â¬Å"The CrisisÃ¢â¬ , whic h was a chapter in his pamphlet Common Sense, which advocated that the thirteen original colonies gain independence from Great Britain. The Declaration of Independence was a government document written in 1776 that proclaimsRead MoreThe Ideas Of The Enlightenment, By Thomas Paine And The Declaration Of Independence767 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe ideas of the Enlightenment spread to the American colonies, profoundly influencing leaders of the Revolution to create a new structure of government. Enlightenment, as defined in Thomas PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s Common Sense, can be broadly defined is the movement towards reason and individualism rather than tradition. The text, by Thomas Paine, challenged the principles of liberty, equality, and justice. Thomas Paine was a revolutionary thinker who used Enlightenment ideology as a platform to persuade towardsRead MoreEssay On Common Sense By Thomas Paine1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages24 March 2017 Common sense by Thomas Paine Thomas Paine, born february 9, 1737 was an english-american activist, philosopher, political theorist, and a revolutionary. He was one of the founding fathers of the united states. He is best known for one of his most influential pamphlets titled Ã¢â¬Å"Common SenseÃ¢â¬ . Through common sense, he inspired rebels in 1776 to declare independence from Britain during the enlightenment era. Ã Ã Ã During the American Revolution many Americans believed that they were fightingRead More Thomas Paine Essay1437 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThomas Paine For many years Thomas Paine was the epitome of American histories greatest drawback. In American history there is always that one detail that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make it into popular curriculum. Whether it be the point of view from the loosing side of a war, to the secret dalliances of a popular politician, to the truth of a times social opinion- the American student is taught only so much. The most proper, popular material makes it in; along with any major facts too commonly known to ignoreRead MoreEarly American Non Fiction Essay1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEarly American Non-Fiction Essay Through American history, there have been numerous examples of revolutionary writing that has changed the course of human events. For example, the Declaration of Independence was a mere three page document that was able to express AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings toward Great Britain, and explain why America desired separation. Another fantastic example of revolutionary American writing is The Crisis by Thomas Paine. In this brief document, Thomas Paine was able to not only galvanizeRead MoreThomas Paine : Common Sense As A Historical Source882 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesman who had been unsuccessful for most of his life, Thomas Paine published the pamphlet Common Sense. The pamphlet persuaded the colonists to declare independence from England, and take up arms in the Revolutionary War. Common Sense was highly effective in motivating the colonists to permanently separate from England and form a new nation. In American history, Thomas Paine became known as one our founding fathers. PaineÃ¢â¬â¢ s influence on American history is vastly significant, and remnants of that influence
Monday, May 18, 2020
The Commonwealth of Nations, often called just the Commonwealth, is an association of 53 independent nations, all but one of which are former British colonies or related dependencies. Although the British empire is mostly no more, these nations grouped together to use their history to promote peace, democracy and development. There are substantial economic ties and a shared history. List of Member Nations Origins of the Commonwealth Towards the end of the nineteenth century changes began occurring in the old British Empire, as the colonies grew in independence. In 1867 Canada became a Ã¢â¬ËdominionÃ¢â¬â¢, a self-governing nation considered equal with Britain rather than simply ruled by her. The phrase Ã¢â¬ËCommonwealth of NationsÃ¢â¬â¢ was used to describe the new relationships between Britain and colonies by Lord Rosebury during a speech in Australia in 1884. More dominions followed: Australia in 1900, New Zealand in 1907, South Africa in 1910 and the Irish Free State in 1921. In the aftermath of the First World War, the dominions sought a new definition of the relationship between themselves and Britain. At first the old Ã¢â¬ËConferences of DominionsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËImperial ConferencesÃ¢â¬â¢, begun in 1887 for discussion between the leaders of Britain and the dominions, were resurrected. Then, at the 1926 Conference, the Balfour Report was discussed, accepted and the following agreed of dominions: They are autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations. This declaration was made law by the 1931 Statute of Westminster and the British Commonwealth of Nations was created. Development of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth evolved in 1949 after the dependence of India, which was partitioned into two wholly independent nations: Pakistan and India. The latter wished to remain in the Commonwealth despite owing no Ã¢â¬Å"allegiance to the CrownÃ¢â¬ . The problem was solved by a conference of Commonwealth ministers that same year, which concluded that sovereign nations could still be a part of the Commonwealth with no implied allegiance to Britain as long as they saw the Crown as Ã¢â¬Å"the symbol of the free associationÃ¢â¬ of the Commonwealth. The name Ã¢â¬ËBritishÃ¢â¬â¢ was also dropped from the title to better reflect the new arrangement. Many other colonies soon developed into their own republics, joining the Commonwealth as they did so, especially during the second half of the twentieth century as African and Asian nations became independent. New ground was broken in 1995, when Mozambique joined, despite never having been a British colony. Not every former British colony joined the Commonwealth, nor did every nation who joined stay in it. For instance Ireland withdrew in 1949, as did South Africa (under Commonwealth pressure to curb apartheid) and Pakistan (in 1961 and 1972 respectively) although they later rejoined. Zimbabwe left in 2003, again under political pressure to reform. The Setting of Objectives The Commonwealth has a secretariat to oversee its business, but no formal constitution or international laws. It does, however, have an ethical and moral code, first expressed in the Ã¢â¬ËSingapore Declaration of Commonwealth PrinciplesÃ¢â¬â¢, issued in 1971, by which members agree to operate, including aims of peace, democracy, liberty, equality and an end to racism and poverty. This was refined and expanded in the Harare Declaration of 1991 which is often considered to have Ã¢â¬Å"set the Commonwealth on a new course: that of promoting democracy and good governance, human rights and the rule of law, gender equality and sustainable economic and social development.Ã¢â¬ (cited from the Commonwealth website, page has since moved.) An action plan has since been produced to actively follow these declarations. Failure to adhere to these aims can, and has, resulted in a member being suspended, such as Pakistan from 1999 to 2004 and Fiji in 2006 after military coups. Alternative Aims Some early British supporters of the Commonwealth hoped for different results: that Britain would grow in political power by influencing the members, regaining the global position it had lost, that economic ties would strengthen the British economy and that the Commonwealth would promote British interests in world affairs. In reality, member states have proved reluctant to compromise their new found voice, instead working out how the Commonwealth could benefit them all. Commonwealth Games Perhaps the best known aspect of the Commonwealth is the Games, a sort of mini Olympics held every four years which only accepts entrants from Commonwealth countries. It has been derided, but is often recognised as a solid way to prepare young talent for international competition. Member Nations (with date of membership) Antigua and Barbuda 1981 Australia 1931 Bahamas 1973 Bangladesh 1972 Barbados 1966 Belize 1981 Botswana 1966 Brunei 1984 Cameroon 1995 Canada 1931 Cyprus 1961 Dominica 1978 Fiji 1971 (left in 1987; rejoined 1997) Gambia 1965 Ghana 1957 Grenada 1974 Guyana 1966 India 1947 Jamaica 1962 Kenya 1963 Kiribati 1979 Lesotho 1966 Malawi 1964 Maldives 1982 Malaysia (formerly Malaya) 1957 Malta 1964 Mauritius 1968 Mozambique 1995 Namibia 1990 Nauru 1968 New Zealand 1931 Nigeria 1960 Pakistan 1947 Papua New Guinea 1975 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 Saint Lucia 1979 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979 Samoa (formerly Western Samoa) 1970 Seychelles 1976 Sierra Leone 1961 Singapore 1965 Solomon Islands 1978 South Africa 1931 (left in 1961; rejoined 1994) Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) 1948 Swaziland 1968 Tanzania 1961(As Tanganyika; became Tanzania in 1964 after union with Zanzibar) Tonga 1970 Trinidad and Tobago 1962 Tuvalu 1978 Uganda 1962 United Kingdom 1931 Vanuatu 1980 Zambia 1964 Zanzibar 1963 (United with Tanganyika to form Tanzania)
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
The Sudanese wedding is a sacred and treasured ceremony celebrated throughout Sudan s culture for its intricacy, beauty, and traditional values.Nearly one year on from the British Royal wedding, I think about similarities with Sudanese weddings. No national holiday to celebrate, but 3 to 5 days of necessary customs to show off to Sudanese society who can spend obscene amounts of money on their children. (Sudanese Weddings: A Royal Shenanigan).Though Sudanese weddings are a glorious sight to behold, there are a multitude of tasking factors to consider when making a traditional Sudanese wedding. The expenses alone could be substantially high and this doesn t even cover the physical and emotional struggle it takes to prepare for the wedding, maintain the wedding, and to be married. It s a long and grueling job to make a Sudanese wedding as magnificent as it is portrayed to be, but once completed the outcome is a voluptuous scenery, grand decor, and a significantly tear-jerking ceremony. Before a wedding can occur there must be two people willing to be married. Marriages are traditionally arranged by the parents of the coupleÃ¢â¬ ¦.Matches are often made between cousins, second cousins, or other family membersÃ¢â¬ ¦..(Sudan). The husband must be wealthy enough to support his wife and give her gifts to confirm his commitment. This is because Sudanese weddings are not usually based on romantic inclination (though it sometimes happens), but a means to acquire wealth and cows. Ã¢â¬Å"RoseShow MoreRelatedEssay about Female Genital Mutilation in Islam1608 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSamia, who was a Muslim girl born in a small Egyptian village close to the Sudanese border.Ã This story illustrates how a young woman realizes the act that she has to undertake, and how even the thought of circumcision fills her with great trepidation. Usually the female is mutilated without anesthesia, lying on her back, legs forced wide apart by as many as five helpers to hold her down (Gaudio 52).Ã In fact, it takes about five people to restrain a girl of only seven years. Ã If the operation isRead MoreThe Dark Color Is Used For Decoration And Hair Dyeing1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswithout this chemical are far safer than those with this chemical, making the claim Ã¢â¬Å"chemical-freeÃ¢â¬ , while not entirely true, a safety precaution to the masses who use mehndi. For many people of color, mehndi is used for religious ceremonies such as weddings. It is also used in parties as a fun pastime as well as for hair dye. Mehndi dyes the roots of the hair a reddish color and is sought after by many older women. In the western world, mehndi is a casual pastime. As a nonpermanent tattoo, it is deemedRead MoreEssay about Samba and the National Identity of Brazil2167 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesarrival of Cabral, the first African slaves were brought to Brazil. With them came another racial, cultural, and musical infusion. There were three main ethnic groups that contributed to the boiling Brazilian melting pot: the Sudanese, the Bantu, and the Moslem Guinea-Sudanese. They contributed the circle dance and lundu song, a precursor to the samba. (Smith) As a result of the relative lack of African and Portuguese women in Brazil, the intermixing of the races was widespread and began earlyRead MoreWhat does Samba Represents to Brazil? Essay examples2337 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pageslanding of Cabral, the first African slaves were brought to Brazil. With them came another racial, cultural, and musical infusion. There were three main ethnic groups that contributed to the simmering Brazilian melting pot: the Sudanese, the Bantu, and the Moslem Guinea-Sudanese. They contributed the lundu song and circle dance, a precursor to the samba. As a consequence of the relative lack of Portuguese and African women in Brazil, the intermingling of the races was extensive and began earlyRead MoreSeason of Migration to the North by Tayeb Salih1919 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesColonized Feminism Being a Feminist and having a Feminist point of view in observing every cultural, social and historical issue had been translated as having a feminine centered and anti-masculine perception. Unlike the general and common knowledge about feminism, it is not only an anti-masculine perception towards social and individual issues. Feminism according to Oxford dictionary is the theory of the political, economic and social equality of the sexes that more commonly known as the pursuit ofRead MoreNuer Refugees from Sudan2588 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesface and how they overcome them once they have been kicked out of their homes and immigrate to Minnesota in the United States. The journey of the Nuer to the United States began when their homeland was invaded by war between the North and South Sudanese. Nuer would explain how their homes would become the battlefields of the War in Southern Sudan. It was the battle between the government and the rebels. No one could side with either side and you could not remain neutral because one side would makeRead MoreEssay on Female Genital Mutilation1839 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMiddle East, parts of Asia, and in immigrant communities in Europe and North America. An estimated 135 million of the worlds girls and women have undergone genital mutilation, and two million girls a year are at risk - approximately 6,000 per day - about one every 15 seconds. (1) Although Female Genital Mutilation predates Islam and is not practiced by the majority of Muslims, it has acquired this religious dimension. However, FGM is a cross-cultural and cross-religious ritual. In Africa and the MiddleRead More Arab Women and Their Spouses Essay 4787 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesLeila Al-Atrash, and A Balcony over the Fakihani, by Liyana Badr one might begin to analyze the different relationships between men and women in Arab culture. While any relationship is uniquely different, these novels will aid in getting a better idea about Arab women and their husbands. The stories begin with the novel Pillars of Salt where Maha and Um Saad are roommates in a mental hospital. Born a Bedouin woman by the Red Sea, in Jordan, Maha was a young woman living with her father and callousRead MoreMidterm: Slavery and Correct Answer4266 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pages25 minutes out of 2 hours. Instructions Question 1 0 out of 2 points Which statement about the nature of the Islamic slave trade prior to European entry is true? Answer Selected Answer: Ã Ã The Islamic slave trade mainly captured adult males for agricultural labor. Correct Answer: Ã Ã The Islamic slave trade was not based primarily on race. Question 2 2 out of 2 points What is true about Native American relationships with African slaves? Answer Selected Answer: Ã Ã NativeRead MoreIncome Taxation Solutions Manual 1 300300 Words Ã |Ã 1202 Pagesearnings of $240,000 (actually the safe earnings which may differ from retained earnings). Therefore, $240,000 flows tax-free to Court corporation as an intercorporate dividend and the balance of $360,000 results in a capital gain and a tax cost of about $80,400. This, of course, is simpler for Spud and is recommended. The above permits Court to sell out with the least amount of tax. It also permits Spud to use corporate funds of Newco to complete the purchase with its funds after paying corporate
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
If everyone else was doing something, would you? Or maybe if someone needed to be stood up for, would you have their back? In The Lottery, people do follow other people blindly. And the consequences are devastating. But in First They Came, not having someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s back might get you in the same positionÃ¢â¬ ¦ The Lottery by Shirley Jackson is a story that takes place in a small village on a warm summer day. Little boyÃ¢â¬â¢s run around in boisterous play, collecting small stones into a pile. As the adults gather into the town square they call upon the children to join them. A man, Mr. Summers, calls out the rules as the postmaster, Mr. Graves, brings out a three legged stool and a black box. A man from each family comes up to the black box to draw aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"First They CameÃ¢â¬ treats these themes slightly differently. In the poem, it shows how standing up for whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right may not always be the easiest path, but it would tend to have the best Ã¢â¬ËendingÃ¢â¬â¢. The author states, after narrowly escaping execution in a concentration camp, that he was plagued with grief and regret because he did not take that path. Maybe if he would have spoken out for the Jewish people, the Socialists, or the Trade Unionists, he may have had someone to back him u p when the Nazis came for him. The poem also portrays the Ã¢â¬Ëfollowing the crowd can have disastrous consequencesÃ¢â¬â¢ theme by showing how he was plagued with guilt because he just followed the crowd instead of standing up for justice. Both of these texts show the texts differently, but they also share similarities. In both stories, standing up for justice may have saved lives, and in both stories following the crowd had consequences. In the lottery, had Mr. Summers or even a normal villager would have stood up against just the idea of the lottery, they may have saved one life a year. In First They Came, there is the possibility that Mr. Neimoller stood up against the Germans, he may have sparked a rebellion, resulting in thousands of lives saved. In the end, both stories end up having the same themes and results. The Lottery was different from First They Came in thatShow MoreRelatedAn Analysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson744 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â ¬ - For Analysis 1. There are multiple examples to suggest that Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ is a ritualistic ceremony. In several instances Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ is referred to as a ritual: Ã¢â¬Å"..so much of the ritual had been forgotten..Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦because so much of the ritual had been forgottenÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . In addition, the ceremony happens annually on June 27th, a t0:00 a.m., suggesting a ceremonial quality. This happens with such regularity that the citizens Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦only half listened to the directionsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . This ceremonyRead MoreThe Lottery By Shirley Jackson Analysis732 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesFollowing other people may have a positive or negative effect, but when it reaches a certain point where you blindly follow others it may not have a positive outcome. Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ made by Shirley Jackson is about a small community of villagers that gather together every year to perform a tradition. All of the villagers gather together and draw small sl ips of paper from a black wooden box, whoever draws the first slip with the black dot on it, their family has to draw first. Now all of the membersRead More Analysis of The Lottery by Shirley Jackson Essay693 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAnalysis of The Lottery by Shirley Jackson Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ by Shirley Jackson was written in 1948. The story takes place in a village square of a town on June 27th. The author does not use much emotion in the writing to show how the barbaric act that is going on is look at as normal. This story is about a town that has a lottery once a year to choose who should be sacrificed, so that the town will have a plentiful year for growing crops. Jackson has many messages about human nature in this shortRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson910 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLiterary Analysis of the Short Story Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ by Shirley Jackson Shirley Jackson explores the subject of tradition in her short story Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ . A short story is normally evaluated based on its ability to provide a satisfying and complete presentation of its characters and themes. Shirley describes a small village that engages in an annual tradition known as Ã¢â¬Å"the lotteryÃ¢â¬ . Narrating the story from a third person point of view, Shirley uses symbolism, foreshadowing and suspense to illustrateRead MoreEssay on The Lottery by Shirley Jackson: an Analysis1522 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKouyialis EN102: Composition II Professor Eklund The Lottery by Shirley Jackson: An Analysis The short story Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ by Shirley Jackson was written in 1948 and takes place in a small town, on the 27th of June. In this story, the lottery occurs every year, around the summer solstice. All families gather together to draw slips of paper from a black box. When reading this story, it is unclear the full premise of the lottery until near the end. The heads of households are the firstRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Literary Analysis: Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ by Shirley Jackson Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ by Shirley Jackson is a short story written in 1948. Due to World War II ending around this time, her story took some strong criticism. The people at that time wanted uplifting stories, and this story is the very opposite because of its underlying theme of tradition and conformity. Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ shows that no matter the tradition or belief, people will not stray from their daily routine because humans are creatures of habitRead MoreAnalysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson773 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the short story, The Lottery, written by Shirley Jackson, is about a small village or some type of society with a yearly tradition called, the lottery. From what the reader may read online, they may find out that during the time period Jackson wrote this, she was interested in magic and witchcraft. Not only that she was also rumored to have gotten rocks thrown at her by children who believed she was a witch. One may also say, that the story wa s absolutely unique and the ending completely shockingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson1060 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthird point of view about other but our view are mostly to always limited, not knowing everything. In a story called Ã¢â¬Å"CharlesÃ¢â¬ by Shirley Jackson, the author creates a limited first point of view of Laurels mother where the reader reads and understand only what LaurieÃ¢â¬â¢s mother understand and see. In the other story also written by Shirley Jackson called Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ , the story proceed at a limited third point of view where the reader understands more ideas. Although each storied have a differentRead MoreAnalysis of The Lottery by Shirley Jackson993 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSpanish author, When we blindly adopt a religion, a political system, a literary dogma, we become automatons. We cease to grow. Shirley Jackson was born in 1919 in San Francisco, California to Leslie and Geraldine Jackson. She is most well known for her s hort story titled Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ which was first published in The New Yorker to overwhelming and mixed reviews. The lottery, as portrayed in the short story, is a religious, annual ceremony in the afternoon of June 27. This event is said to be olderRead MoreAnalysis Of The Lottery By Shirley Jackson784 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthose groups. Then they came out for him and there was no one left to speak out for him. In the story Ã¢â¬Å"the lotteryÃ¢â¬ by Shirley Jackson it explained how they play the lottery but rather than winning its actually a loss if you win. In the story they have a black box and slips of paper and if you have a black dot on your paper you get stoned to death. In their town itÃ¢â¬â¢s a tradition to play the lottery. So they come to the town square they all get called up to get their slip of paper and when everyone gets
Everyone wants to be successful in life. One of the easiest ways to become successful is to set and achieve your own goals. There are many different types of goals. We will write a custom essay sample on My Goals in Life or any similar topic only for you Order Now Some take longer to accomplish than others, and they all have to be approached in a different way. Three types of goals are career goals, personal goals, and educational goals. My educational goal is to graduate from college with a degree in engineering. IÃ¢â¬â¢m still trying to pick out a college to go to. IÃ¢â¬â¢m only a junior in high school so it will be about five years before I achieve this goal. For me to achieve this goal I will have to work very hard on my school work, and I will have to become a better studier. My personal goal is to become a professional soccer player. Some people would say that that would be my career. They are right but I know that itÃ¢â¬â¢s a long shot to make it that far. I also know that I canÃ¢â¬â¢t do that forever. So I would still need a career to fall back on. I will have to practice very hard and really work to achieve this goal. My career goal is to become an engineer. I think it would be really neat to be able to design cars for a major company like GM. For me to achieve this goal I must first achieve my educational goal and graduate from college. These are just some of my goals. I plan to achieve these goals and others while being very successful. For me to achieve all of my goals I have to start working now. IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to work hard to achieve my career, personal, and educational goals. How to cite My Goals in Life, Papers My Goals in Life Free Essays I have many goals in my life, and I have learned to categorize them into short term, midterm, and long term goals. Doing so helps me keep my focus on what is immediate, and what it takes to make the long-term goals happen. It also allows me to keep my visions clear and in tune to what I want to achieve. We will write a custom essay sample on My Goals in Life or any similar topic only for you Order Now Earning my MBA First, I want to earn my Masters in Business Administration degree. I know that this will prepare me for the life I want. More than the title, I want an MBA degree because I know that it will give me the appropriate knowledge that I need to put up my own business in the future. A formal education in business, especially that which is post-graduate, will also give me the proper training. It will be my baptism of fire into the world of business because it will detach me from the school-based business setting and move me into the real business world. Like Odysseus who had been in many adventures and conquests, most of them with complete uncertainty, it is my job to prepare myself to whatever can happen. Odysseus had instances where he hoped for good luck and relied in prayer and it showed how uncertain he and his colleagues were in their adventures. As factual as the story is, luck will sometimes turn towards me or otherwise. I know that I should be prepared no matter what happens. I deem formal education as a step for doing this. Success in business When I have finished my MBA, I can then take steps to make my next dream materialize. I want to be a businessman, managing my own business and giving products or services that people will want to buy. I want to be successful in the initiatives that I will undertake. Because I have all the proper knowledge, I know this is possible. I will study the possibilities well before starting my enterprise. I will think of a venture or merchandise that is incomparable with others. It could be something new like a new product or service, or something that can enhance what people already have. It will really be hard to pinpoint which industry at this time because it will largely depend on what the environment the business sector has at that time. I will then make a comprehensive feasibility study about my chosen field. Like pursuing my MBA, I will treat handling my business like a continuous opportunity for studying. I will give myself the chance to explore the new boundaries in the field that I will choose. I know that this will expand my knowledge and abilities as well as enhance my skills. Like Odysseus who remained true to the things that he envisioned, I should have a can-go attitude at all times. Settling down Success in business is only half of my accomplishments. I also aspire for a complete personal life. I can only achieve this by getting married. I view settling down with the person I love. We shall stay somewhere we both like, and have our own family. Most probably, we will be having children right after we get married. It is my goal to be able to provide for my family. I want to be able to answer all of their needs and, if possible, their wants. I also want to impart in them the lessons I have learned in life and hope that they will apply them in their own convictions. If this happens I am sure that they can lead good and productive lives that they will never even once regret. I know this because I am sure that making the right choices in life will do them good. Interconnection These goals are interconnected. I know that even if they have to happen at different times in my life, not achieving one will greatly affect the way that I can do the others. For instance, when I do not get my MBA I know that I will miss a lot of lessons that can help get my business started. I will likewise find it hard to get my business going. When I do not get successful in my business, it will also be difficult for me to provide for my family. Because this is the way that I want to work and earn a living, if I cannot be successful in my business I will have to struggle or maybe have to work in a company instead of being the boss of my own firm. I know that this will be difficult for me. Yet like Odysseus, I should consider that life is filled with trials. Things will not always go as planned. It takes prayers and actions to get things done, yet even in the times when one prays and acts a lot it is still not possible to achieve something that is not meant to be. People around should also be considered as they can make or break oneÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams. Looking at these teachings from the classic literature, one conclusion comes to mind: we have our goals and we should do every thing that can make them happen, but we should equally be prepared for the diversions that will surely come our way. It is a lesson well learned. How to cite My Goals in Life, Essay examples My Goals in Life Free Essays There are aspects in life that have influenced me to have a better future. To begin that, I have set goals to better my life but it will take hard work and commitment to pursue them. It was not until recently when I have decided to get my life started and pursue the dreams that I have always wanted to have. We will write a custom essay sample on My Goals in Life or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are three primarily goals in my life I would like to achieve, my personal, academic and career goals. My personal goal is to have a stable financial. My academic goal is to graduate from college with a 3. GPA. As for my career goal, I would like to become a Registered Nurse. At this point in my life, I have realized that money has been an issue. This fact will lead us to my long-term personal goal which is to have a stable financial. It is very important to have a financial stability just in case of emergency or unexpected expenses. To improve my financial status, my intermediate goal is to have my credit cards debts and my loans paid off in two years from today. By doing that, I have made a short term goal, which is to spend less money that I earn, create a financial budget to help me save and to increase the money I earn by making more hours or possibly invest on something. Slowly, I am doing my best to accumulate money every day now. In order to achieve my academic goal, I will have to break many bad habits and dedicate my life to the grades I want in college. My long term academic goal is to major in Nursing in the year of 2015. Pursuing this goal will help get me started on my career path. My intermediate goal is to graduate from Valencia Community College with an A. S. degree and with at least a 3. 0 GPA or higher within two years. To build my GPA to a 3. 0, I must dedicate my time on studying and showing up in class every day. Before, I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as focused and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care about school because I had thought that having fun is better than studying but now, I came to realized how academic will help me better my future and it will pay off. Furthermore, my long-term career goal is to get a job as a Registered Nurse by the time I am 28 years old. I love taking care of people and making sure that they have the care that they need. Registered Nurse is also a high paying job and many states are in high demand in nurses. To follow my long term career goal, I have set a intermediate goal. My intermediate goal is to do internships and/or externships in many medical sites; to get the experiences that I need to become one of the best nurse there is. Volunteering in clinics and hospitals will help me closer to my career path. I would have to send out my resumes and keep pushing myself to the top. In conclusion, setting goals are easy, but pursuing them consists of hard working and dedication. By the time IÃ¢â¬â¢m 29 years old, I want to be set in life with my personal, academic and career goals. I will have a steady financial within two years from today, by accumulating money. Majoring in Nursing by the year of 2015 and be a graduate student from Valencia Community College with a 3. 0 GPA or higher is my academic goal. Lastly, my career goal is to be a Registered Nurse by the age of 28. I am ready to live my life. How to cite My Goals in Life, Papers
As seen throughout Sherman AlexieÃ¢â¬â¢s work, despair and hardship caused by European influences among Native peoples is a common issue that seems to be a reoccurring element in his work. Through the use of figurative language, Alexie is able to transcribe those issues onto paper by using metaphors and illusions to describe emotions conveyed by the Native peoples. Sherman Alexie is a Native American writer that is influenced by his experiences while growing up on the Spokane Indian Reservation in the state of Washington. In many of AlexieÃ¢â¬â¢s works, he answers the questions Ã¢â¬Å"what is it like to be a Native American? Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"what does it mean to be a Native American? Ã¢â¬ In Sherman AlexieÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Crow TestamentÃ¢â¬ , he uses figurative language and figures of speech, such as metaphors, religious allusions, structure, and imagery to illustrate the hardships that Native Americans experienced through the crow in the last lines of each stanza. Although his different use of writing styles are not intended to be taken literally, they give the reader the emotions of despair and agony Native peoples experienced that cannot be given with the use of literal meanings of words. Although Alexie describes the hardships that the natives went through, he adds positive notes that describe how the natives are not afraid of death. Sherman Alexie uses metaphors to help create a descriptive picture in the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. He uses interesting characters such as the crow and other animals to describe people. As mentioned in the first line, Ã¢â¬Å"Cain lifts Crow, that heavy black birdÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The first metaphor, the crow, which is the main character of this poem, stands for any oppressed people, but more specifically the native peoples in the Americas. This poem would not have the same meaning if the crow stood for a different kind of person. Throughout the poem, the crow is constantly suppressed and not given any respect from the characters that represent the white man. Religion is a prominent theme in many of AlexieÃ¢â¬â¢s works however, Ã¢â¬Å"Crow TestamentÃ¢â¬ revolves around the influence of white religions on native people. In the bible, crows and ravens stand for evil and impurity. Alexie exploits this by having the crow represent natives because the white man, throughout manifest destiny, view the natives as crows. Another metaphor that Alexie uses for the white man is a falcon. Native Americans view falcons with good qualities and respect. This is important because the falcon is symbolic to when the Europeans in general first came to the Americas with open arms to the natives. They were first viewed as harmless and friends until they savaged their lands without any consent of the natives. In Ã¢â¬Å"Crow Testament,Ã¢â¬ the falcon steals the salmon from the crow, which represents how the white man took advantage of the nativesÃ¢â¬â¢ openness to them. AlexieÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the pale horse is a direct reference to the book of Revelation. According to the story, the pale horse is one of the Four Horses of the Apocalypse and its rider is Death. In the poem, the crow is riding the pale horse into a powwow, but none of the natives panic. Alexie is trying to demonstrate that the natives understand where their fate will take them and are riding right into their own apocalypse. Alexie ends on a positive note by saying that the native already have embraced their pending death, and the white man cannot take their beliefs of the afterlife away from them. If a reader were to take any of these metaphors literally, the poem would not have much meaning and many stanzas would not make any sense. The use of the characters from the Book of Genesis, Cain and Abel, set the stage of the deeper meanings of the poem with the use of religious allusions. It shows how the Bible will be a major theme in the development of the characters and the meaning of the poem as a whole. Cain striking down Abel shows how the white man and his religion are revolved around violence against each other. The Crow questions the beliefs of the white man, by saying Ã¢â¬Å"The Crow God as depicted in all the reliable Crow bibles look exactly like a Crow. Ã¢â¬ Alexie used Ã¢â¬Å"Crow GodÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"Falcon GodÃ¢â¬ because he is comparing their god to humans, which allows the reader to understand that Alexie is saying how the white manÃ¢â¬â¢s god is also in the NativeÃ¢â¬â¢s image as well. With the use of the crow metaphor, Alexie comments how someone can worship someone who is in his exact image. Alexie also shows how it might be easy for any European American to worship someone who is man. The God from the bible is described as an all-powerful white man who looks like human beings. Because the European Americans worship a God in their own image, it shows how the natives are not in their same image and therefore born sinners. In this stanza, Ã¢â¬Å"The Crow God as depicted in all the reliable Crow bibles look exactly like a Crow. Damn, says crow, this makes it so much easier to worship myself. Ã¢â¬ Alexie mocks Christian beliefs as a whole by subtly pointing out the arrogance in the white man. Through this stanza of the poem, it is evident that Alexie uses humor by mocking this religion with how ridiculous it is to worship a god in manÃ¢â¬â¢s image. Alexie uses another reference from the Bible by mentioning the Battle of Jericho from the Book of Joshua. The Battle of Jericho is described to be the first battle of the Israelites throughout their conquest of Canaan. Joshua led the Israelite army in his campaign for the long sought Arc of the Covenant, killing everyone in his path. As the poem mentions, Ã¢â¬Å"Among the ashes of Jericho, Crow sacrifices his firstborn son. Damn, says Crow, a million nests are soaked with blood. Ã¢â¬ Alexie adds this to the poem because the people of Jericho represent the Native Americans and the Israelites representing the white men and their campaign for resources. The white men wiped out the majority of the Native American populations, just like the citizens of Jericho in the Book of Joshua. The Ã¢â¬Å"million nests soaked in bloodÃ¢â¬ stands for the natives who lost their lives during the European conquest of the Americas. The structure of Ã¢â¬Å"Crow TestamentÃ¢â¬ has a very interesting style in the way Alexie wrote it. There are a total of seven stanzas in the poem with only a few lines in each one. This style that Alexie used improves the poem by allowing the reader to feel that there are stages in the poem, just like there were stages in depletion of the Native American dominance in the Americas. At the end of every stanza, the crowÃ¢â¬â¢s comments are a reassurance given by Alexie showing the despair and harsh reality of the life of a Native American. For example, the end of the second stanza where the white man disguised as a falcon steals the salmon, the crow mentions that he would have left the country years ago if he knew what was to become of his people. The last lines of each stanza are filled with hindsight by the crow as he describes what he would do in each situation if he would of known of the outcome prior to it happening. The use of imagery is found in many works that Alexie has published. In Ã¢â¬Å"Crow TestamentÃ¢â¬ specifically, the fifth stanza of the poem states that beaks and talons filled the air, which suggests that the reader envision a sky riddled with war. Also, the white man disguised as a falcon swoops the salmon from the crow where Alexie uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"swoopsÃ¢â¬ to let the reader see how the disguised white man quickly came and stole the salmon using force. This similarly happened when the first Europeans settled in the Americas. Alexie also states, Ã¢â¬Å"Among the ashes of JerichoÃ¢â¬ which can give the reader an image of a burnt landscape. This landscape can represent the Americas during the fall of the native people. Furthermore, as mentioned in the poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦they sky fills with beaks and talons. Ã¢â¬ This imagery depicts how war will take over the land and be a common sight. Through the use of figurative language, Alexie is able to amplify the emotions of despair and hardship that can be seen through Native peoples. Alexie uses the crowÃ¢â¬â¢s character as a metaphor for oppressed people while Cain resembles European influence on the NativeÃ¢â¬â¢s traditions. Alexie uses an allusion of religion through the characters, Cain and Abel, which represent the characters in the Old Testament in the book of Genesis. With the crow, Alexie is able to show the reader of the tragic life that Native Americans lived through while living on reservations. The use of imagery is an important tool used by Alexie, which lets the reader use their imagination with words that were used. With the last two stanzas of the poem, Alexie shows that the Native peoples have nothing left to lose, saying how they all live near the end of the world. Reading the last stanza at first will leave the reader thinking that the poem ends in a negative note however; Alexie ends on a positive note saying that there is nothing left for the white man to take away from the Native Americans. Although there are many things that left the natives in agony and despair, the white man is unable to take away their acceptance of the pale horse and its rider, Death.
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about theBiotechnologyfor Environmental Consequences. Answer: Tittle of the Grant Application Identification and application of the Biosurfactants for the use in the marine oil spill remediation. Background The oil releases can raise a noteworthy environmental consequences in the marine world and the marine environment gets highly effected by these oil pills. One of the early responses of the oil pills that chemical are dispersed in the marine environment. These chemical includes hydrocarbon and metals. However, the increasing awareness of the public regarding the environmental pollution have influence the discovery and development of the technologies which will be helpful for the clearance of the inorganic and organic compounds like metals and hydrocarbons. The Biosurfactants are one type of surface-active compounds produced by microorganisms. These are surface?active amphipathic molecules which have a wide structural diversity. These diversity endows these molecules with the unique properties they have. The properties of the biosurfactants includes higher selectivity, better environmental compatibility and biodegradability in comparison to other synthetic surfactants. As the marine mi croorganism goes through different physiological and metabolic adaptation due to their survival in the extreme habitat, the biosurfactants that are produced by marine bacteria have the ability to retain its activity in the extreme condition of the salinity, pH and temperature (Szulc et al. 2014 pp.121-128). The biosurfactants mainly belongs to a group of amphiphilic biomolecules which is structurally diverse. They have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties. In general the biosurfactants are grouped in the high and low molecular weight consisting molecules. The low molecular weight biosurfactants consist of lipopeptides and glycolipids and there are some other high molecular weight polymeric biosurfactants. As these biosurfactants have a high biodegradability and low toxicity they are very promising for their use as the alternative to the synthetic surfactant. Since the biosurfactants have the ability to facilitate the emulsification process of hydrocarbon in the aqueous phase an d thus enhanced the microbial uptake and subsequent degradation. However, there are very few marine microbial community present that are been explored and used for the production of the surface active molecules. To understand the biodegradation process in the deep water environment is very necessary as oil exploration and extraction is very fast in the water. This understanding will help to optimize response measure to be taken whenever a potential oil spill occurs using this bioremediation approaches. The microbial biosurfactants are less toxic than the chemical surfactants so these biosurfactants can be a replacement of the chemical surfactants in several types of applications (Nikolopoulou et al. 2013 pp.37-44). Aims of the Project To investigate the biosurfactants production efficiency and quality of the isolated consortia and the pure strains isolated from the water column of hydrocarbon- contaminated marine area with CO as the sole carbon source. To determine the isolation, screening, detection, and characterisation of the biosurfactant producing microorganism. Hypothesis The marine hydrocarbon degraders are mostly biosurfactant producers and this characteristic of these specific community of microorganism has insisted the researchers to investigate the efficiency of the biosurfactant production rates and quality of the marine hydrocarbon degraders. The biosurfactant production ability of the organism should also be investigated and there should be an evaluation of the composition of the biosurfactant that whether it is toxic or hazardous to the environment or not. The distribution rate of the biosurfactant that how fast they are able to disperse and the effectiveness of the biosurfactant in the degradation procedure of the oil hydrocarbons must also be evaluated. Methodology and Approach Sample Collection Six seawater samples were to be collected from six different location of the water bodies present in the industrial area mainly where there is a presence of oil refinery in the industrial area. As there is the presence of oil refinery there may be slow seepage of the oil from the storage tanks, so there may be a probable chance of presence of hydrocarbon degrading microorganism. The main aim of the sampling campaign is to isolate potential hydrocarbon degraders from the water sample. Preparation of the culture An enrichment culture is to be prepared by adding 10 ml of the water sample along with the respective media in an Erlenmeyer flasks. The media used for the isolation purpose is the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-amended minimal liquid medium. Then the culture should be incubate in the incubator shaker at 20 degree centigrade at a rate of 150rpm. Screening of the organism For the screening and isolation of the pure biosurfactant producing strain the Drop Collapse Test was performed. Where the deionised water was taken as the negative control. For the Drop Collapse Test the organism is to be incubated at 14 degree centigrade. The Drop Collapse Test was to be performed once in every week before the re-inoculation. Community screening For the screening of the community of the organism PCR and pyrosequencing is to be performed. The total genomic DNA was extracted. The DNA yield and quality was to be determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis of 5 l of DNA extract. For PCR the primers are used to amplify the hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA. The 16s rRNA sequence of every organism will be different as it is the hypervariable region of the gene it varies from species to species. Characterisation of the strain The characterisation of the pure isolates around 200 l of each of the culture is to be centrifuged for 5 minutes at 10000g and after the collection of the PCR amplified product of the 16S rRNA , it was compared with the NCBI nr and 16s database using the software of BLAST algorithm to find out the closest described relative or more precisely species respectively. Biosurfactant production (cultivation, extraction, and purification) PAH-amended minimal liquid medium is used for the cultivation of the isolated strain. The extraction of the biosurfactant from the medium was performed by liquid-liquid extraction. For the purification of the produced crude extract of the biosurfactant Silica Gel Column Chromatography was to be conducted. Detection of the Biosurfactant The detection of the biosurfactant was done by performing the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the crude extract on ac pre-coated silica gel. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy that is infrared spectroscopy as well as Mass Spectroscopy can also be used for the detection of the Biosurfactants. However, here TLC is chosen for the detection of the biosurfactant because among the detection technologies present it is the most cost effective technique. Significance, Innovation and National Benefit There are many different benefit present of the biosurfactants which possess huge significance in the innovation of the environmental conservation and the national benefit. The biosurfactant are effective in oil spill clean-up operation, bioremediation of the oil-contaminated environments and marine oil pollution, environmental application, bioremediation of the hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The advantages of the biosurfactants are as follows Microbes can easily degrade them. It has good digestibility and compatibility with the other living organism. The Toxicity it has is low. It possess capacity of emulsification. They are easily available and in large quantity as they are produced from the raw material which are very cheap. The property of them to maintain sustainability makes them ecologically accepted. Figure 1 Importance of the biosurfactant in different areas Source: (Anon, 2016) The national benefit exist in the matter that by the use of the Biosurfactants the government can avoid the issues related to the environmental pollution while using and producing the products of the oil refineries. Therefore the government should take initiative to promote this type project and the in recent decades it will be very beneficial for the governments in the domain of the petroleum business which gives highest sort of development of economy nowadays. So the government can deliver oil and oil associated product without raising any environmental issue so it will proved to be very beneficial for the government in using the oil refineries and oil products and also it will help the government to maintain an eco-friendly marine environment in the nation. Budget Budget SL.No. Amount Sub- total 1 Personal Cost of the chemical and instruments $60,500 Cost of the Man power used $32,425 Contigency fund $28,200 Total personnel Expenses $121,125 2 Direct expenses Expenses used interviews and other expenses $15,000 Total Direct Expenses $15,000 3 Travel Domestic travel $3,860 International travel $6,620 Total Travel Expenses $10,480 Total Expenses $146,605 Over head @ 10 % $14,661 Total Request of Grant $161,266 The major expenses in this project is the cost of the personal expenses it includes the cost of the chemical and the culture media to be used in this project. It also includes the cost of the instruments that are to be bought for different purpose of the project. The instrument involved in this project are the PCR thermocycler, pyro Sequencer, laminar air flow, Column chromatography apparatus, BOD incubator, Autoclave, and spectrophotometer. This part of the expenses also includes the cost of the man power used in this project and the contingency fund. The contingency fund includes the fund for miscellaneous expenses including whatever little things required to perform the experiment and take it through smoothly. The second most important expenses of this project is the expenses related to the direct expenses. The direct expenses includes the expenses required for the interview and all other recruitment and engage procedure required for the smooth running of the project. This direct expense also includes the expenses used for the travelling conveniences to the laboratory and other places. The third section of the expenses includes the travelling expenses. This travelling expenses includes the expenses of the domestic and international travelling required for the collection of the sample from different places and industrial sites. An overhead cost of 10 percent was incorporated for keeping some extra fund so that if any how the budget crosses in any of the domain of the expenses then it can be manipulated or managed with this overhead cost. Lay Summary of the Proposed Study The impact of the increase in the awareness of the peoples about the environmental pollution is that the researchers are impelled to investigate, search and develop different alternative technologies and techniques that can help in the cleaning of the inorganic and organic contaminants like the hydrocarbons and metal form the environment. The previous remediation technology includes utilization of the chemical biosurfactants. However, the chemical biosurfactants have toxic affect over the marine environment while removing the oil spills and hydrocarbon so the researcher have developed an alternative and eco-friendly method for the remediation techniques of the environments contaminated with the pollutant of the oil refineries which includes the use of the biosurfactant and the biosurfactant producing microorganisms. The diversity of the biosurfactants and biosurfactants producing organism makes them a very interesting groups of compound and microorganism to be used widely in the biot echnological and industrial applications. The purpose this experiment is incorporate more advances in the application of the biosurfactants and biosurfactant producing microorganism in the remediation technology of the hydrocarbon, metals and the pollutants of the oil refineries. Reference Szulc, A., Ambro?ewicz, D., Sydow, M., ?awniczak, ?., Piotrowska-Cyplik, A., Marecik, R. and Chrzanowski, ?., 2014. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: Feasibility during field studies. Journal of environmental management, 132, pp.121-128. Nikolopoulou, M., Pasadakis, N., Norf, H. and Kalogerakis, N., 2013. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids. Marine pollution bulletin, 77(1), pp.37-44. Anon, (2016). [online] Available at: https://www.innovativepublication.com/admin/uploaded_files/IJMR_3(1)_5-10.pd [Accessed 21 Oct. 2016].